A question on Law and Architecture

30113After having visited the Italian Supreme Court building and the monument dedicated to Camillo Cavour, could you provide other examples of monuments that have a peculiar relationship with law and justice and that were built in the same period? You can take into account monuments located all over the world, but they have to be built (or at least designed) during the 19th century.

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25 thoughts on “A question on Law and Architecture

  1. Michela Zala says:

    THE PITTSBURGH COURTHOUSE

    This monument is an example of the nineteenth-century revival architecture. It was designed and built by Henry Hobson Richardson from 1883 and it was finish in 1888. It is interesting to note that the architect sought to convey the function of the building and its iconography. Columns, for example, instantly evoke Greece and Rome, and what they stand for: antiquity, justice, reason, imperial power. Gothic towers evoke the Middle Ages: Christianity, faith, emotion, mystery, the supernatural.

    The design of the main building, which Richardson considered to be his finest, was innovative in that the building is built around an interior courtyard, thus allowing natural light and fresh air to reach most of the building. A prison is connected to the courthouse by the “Bridge of Sighs”. The design was based on the Bridge of Sighs in Venice. The entire complex was built of large rusticated blocks of granite, with the entrance ways and windows topped with wide arches. This gives the building a heavy, stable and dignified appearance.

    The interior design is quite impressive, especially the first two floors, which include wide marble staircases and large ornate frescos adorning the walls and ceilings. The courtrooms and offices also include finely decorated woodwork and other artistic adornments.

    When first completed in 1888, the present-day five-story Allegheny County Courthouse was the tallest structure in the City of Pittsburgh, a skyscraper in modern terminology. The 249 foot courthouse tower stood for twenty-five years as the highest peak in town until 1903, when the 24 story Farmers Bank Building was erected. Today, the tower is dwarfed by the City’s modern steel-framed skyscrapers, such as the 54 story One Mellon Center. The two buildings create an interesting contrast in urban architecture from the late 1800 and the late 1900.

    Although there have been innumerable alterations to the Pittsburgh courthouse over the years, this impressive building have withstood the test of time and remain powerfully expressive structure enjoyed as architectural masterpiece.

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  2. Clemens Daniel Pucher says:

    The Austrian Palace of Justice- Der Oberste Gerichtshof in Wien

    In May 1875 the decision to build a Supreme Court in Vienna was taken. With the beginning of the constitutional monarchy and the Constitution of 1867 the so called “Dezemberpatent”, there was the need of new building for a Supreme Court and Cassation Court. The place near to one of the most famous streets in Vienna and the parliament was chosen by Emperor Franz-Joseph I.
    The jury selected the design of the Viennese architect, Alexander Wielemans Edler von Monteforte who designed a huge building not only for the function as a Supreme Court. Having cost a total of 2.75 million guilders, the new building called Palace of Justice “Justizpalast” housed the Supreme Court of Justice and Cassation(Oberster- und Cassationsgerichtshof)together with the Procurator General’s Office (Generalprocuratur), the Higher Regional Court of Appeal for Lower and Upper Austria and Salzburg (Landesgerichtshof für die Kronländer Salzburg, Österreich ober und unter der Enns) together with the Senior Public Prosecutor’s Office (Oberstaatsanwaltschaft), the Vienna Regional Court for Civil Matters (Oberlandesgerichtshof für Civilrechtssachen Wien)and the Vienna Commercial Court (Handelsgericht Wien). Since then, the building has been witness to many twists and turns of history.

    The Courthouse was a monumental building of the age of Historicism. In front of the building there are two lions placed, for a visitor it looks like guards protecting this place. Inside there is a monumental Central Hall, a staircase in the middle of the Hall goes to the first floor. Next to the staircase there is a statue of Lady Justice (Justitia) in the one hand holding a sword in the other a book of law. Everybody has to pass Lady Justice- she is ruling the place, if you just entered the place you can see the statue of her. Above Lady Justice you can see the imperial coat of arms of the Austro-Hungary. This I think one of the strongest symbols to show that above all justice the Emperor has still a powerful influence in the Jurisdiction; and there is a legal instrument, by the way also existing today the appeal for clemency that is still one step higher than ordinary Jurisdiction. Around the Hall there is an arcade each column of it flanked with one of the coat of arms of the Kingdoms and Lands represented in the Imperial Council (crown lands). Inside the building I found also a lunette-picture showing a judge or a lawyer thinking while a Lady Justice pictured like an angel is giving him some advice; the angel is holding its hands over the head of the thinking lawyer. There are also other historical pictures also with religious contexts. Above the windows of the first floor the facade is decorated with a pair of scales. However compared with the Italian “Corte die Cassazione” the building in Vienna is not so monumental and pompous, but all in all the style of the courthouse is narrative too.

    On January 30th 1927, a violent conflict between supporters of the Republican Schutzbund and the Association of War Veterans in the Burgenland village of Schattendorf led to the deaths of two innocent people, among them a 6-year old child. Following the acquittal of the defendants accused of the offence in a jury trial in Vienna, in the course of a violent demonstration on 15th July 1927 the Palace of Justice was set on fire. The police were ordered to shoot the protesters, and 89 people died. This terrible and tragic event is inseparably and tragically associated with the history of this place. It destroyed a major part of the premises, particularly the Supreme Court, together with the entire official library, at the time the third-largest law library in Europe (“Amtsbibliothek”), with its countless irreplaceable historic documents (such as the minutes of the Council of Ministers from 1867 to 1918), as well as the Land Registry (“Grundbuch”) for most of the districts of Vienna. Until the Palace of Justice was rebuilt at the beginning of 1930s, the judicial offices affected were provisionally housed in the building of the former Austro-Hungarian National Bank.

    After the fire of 1927 the Palace of Justice was rebuild again, but the jury and the architect decided not to reconstruct the Palace of Justice in the same way. The building was before the fire an old fashioned place, with very high rooms less light and it was very expansive to heat it during the winter time. After the July Revolt of 1927 and the fire, caused the death of 89 people the decision was taken to take the change and to modify the building in a modern way. Today in front of the building there are huge pillars next to the entrance. The language of symbols outside the building is very clear; there are not so much symbols. Two lions are there to save Lady Justice (Justitia), a huge statue inside the building. also the scales above the windows are existing too. Inside the building some of the rooms and its decoration was changed.

    During the Second World War the building was again damaged on several occasions by bombs. After 1945 the building was reconstructed.

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  3. Alicia Newman says:

    The Palace of Westminster

    The Houses of Parliament were built between 1839-52 and they are considered a UNESCO World Heritage site. The Palace of Westminster is the “heart of British politics” and has had a long history. Historically, there have been two structures – the Old Palace, a medieval complex that was destroyed by fire in 1834 and the New Palace, which stands today. The Palace is the property of the Crown and retains its original status as a royal residence.

    The first palace was elevated in the 11th century and the Westminster served as the primary residence of the Kings of England until the first fire (in 1512) destroyed the majority of the building. After the fire, the place was used as the Parliament of England. The Parliament had been meeting there since the 13th century; the Palace also served as the seat of the Royal Courts of Justice based in and around Westminster Hall. Unfortunately, in 1834 there had been another fire which completely ravaged the building and hence the Houses of Parliament were rebuilt in the 19th century.

    The architect who won the competition for the reconstruction of the Palace, was Charles Barry. His design was in the Gothic Revival style which was particularly influenced by the English Perpendicular Gothic style of the 14th-16th centuries. The Palace constitutes the center of political and as a result legal life in the UK. The Elizabethan Tower, which is often referred as the Big Ben, which is the name of its main bell is considered the landmark of London and England in general.

    Charles Barry, the architect of the Palace, was a classical architect and so he was aided by August Pugin, a Gothic architect in the reconstruction of the Palaces. Surprisingly, Pugin was not satisfied with the result of Barry’s work and especially with the symmetrical layout.

    As an interesting fact, the Westminster Hall was primarily used for judicial proceedings, housing three of the most important courts in the land: the Court of King’s Bench, the Court of Common Pleas and the Court of Chancery. In 1875, these courts were incorporated into the High Court of Justice which was later moved, in 1882 to the Royal Courts of Justice.

    The Parliament in the United Kingdom has a special status, it is supreme. Due to its sovereignty, it cannot bind itself, as successive Parliament can repeal whatever has been enacted by the preceding Parliament. All the law making that takes place at Westminster is extremely important; it is the place where primary legislation is created that English judges later interpret and apply in their decisions. The link between politics, law and justice is clearly visible in everyday affairs taking place at the London Houses of Parliament.

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  4. Ginevra Guacci says:

    Simplon Gate

    This monument, known also as the Peace Arch, is situated in Milan at the end of Via Semprione and was built during the beginning of the 19th century but was completely ornamented in the 1838.

    It is located where, in the Roman age, “Porta Gloria” was erected, a name that already resembles a symbol of power and victory. Following the local tradition, the viceroy of Milan, Eugenio di Beauharnais, wanted an arch to be erected to celebrate his wedding with Augusta di Baviera. Therefore an arch was built but it was made of canvas, plastic and wood. Since this “ephemeral arch”, as it was called, had a great success among the people, also among visitors, the municiplaity decided to build another monument and this time it should be made of marble, according to the greatness of its meaning.

    This new Arch, called the Victory Arch (and now Simplon Gate), was commissioned to the Marquess of Cagnola, who had already assembled the first one. He was still a rappresentative of the Neoclassical style. Unfortunately the downfall of the first Italian Kingdom stopped the construction for a while. In the meantime the architect died and the Carlo Giuseppe Londonio completed the construction.

    On the 8th of July 1859, Napoleone III e Vittorio Emanuele II made their triumphal entry in Milan through this Arch and when the city of Milan became part of the Kingdom of Sardinia after a long time of Habsburg rule, it was added on the yet completed arch this sentence;
    « Entrando coll’armi gloriose / Napoleone III e Vittorio Emanuele II liberatori / Milano esultante cancellò da questi marmi / le impronte servili / e vi scrisse l’indipendenza d’Italia / MDCCCLIX »

    Simplon Gate is decorated with many bas relieves that represent the previous history of Italy, such as the Lipsian Battle, the Prague’s Congress, the Kulm Battle, the Vienna’s Congress. There are many allegories as well, and they are all reference to the Ancient Roman and pagan culture, just like Hercules, Minerva, Apollo and Mars. On the top of the Arch there is the “Sestiga of Peace” composed of six bronze horses pulling a finely decorated float on which stands Minerva with symbols of Peace” and the “Four mounted Victories”, four bronze sculpture put on each corner of the monument’s peak.

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  5. Laura Manna says:

    UNITED STATES CAPITOL
    Even if the history of the United States Capitol Building begins in 1793(President Washington laid the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol in the building’s southeast corner on September 18, 1793)and since then, the U.S. Capitol has been built, burnt, rebuilt, extended and restored, we can say that the heart of this impressive structure was made in the Eighties (indeed the Capitol was greatly expanded in the fifties of the XIX century).
    The Capitol is an example of the neoclassical style. The current building is the result of work of many architects. The original project is due to William Thornton, but was later edited by Stephen Hallet, Benjamin Latrobe and, finally, by Charles Bulfinch. Thomas Walter and August Schoenborn designed the current dome and the buildings that house the House of Representatives and the Senate, whose construction was supervised by Edward Clark.
    The building is characterized by the huge central dome that rises on a roundabout connecting two wings which house the two branches of Congress. The North Wing is occupied by the Senate, the South Wing by the House of representatives. The dome is surmounted by a bronze statue of liberty.
    The building contains in itself the signs of contribution given by Italian artists : on 6 March of 1805 Thomas Jefferson addressed the toscano Filippo Mazzei a letter required skilled stonemasons and sculptors available to travel to America to work at the Capitol in Washington. The first to arrive overseas were Giuseppe Franzoni and Giovanni Andrei (the first described as a talented sculptor who “will soon be a second Canova”, the second known to have executed the balustrade of the main altar in the basilica of Santa Maria Novella in Florence) . Will be many sculptural works made by Franzoni to the Capitol, including the frieze of the Hall of Representatives, the figure of liberty for the Chamber of Representatives, the frieze above the Speakers ‘ Chair and the figure of Justice to the Court Room. Works that will be almost entirely destroyed on 24 August 1814 when the United States Capitol was conquered and burned by British troops. Shortly after the completion of two wings in August 1814, in effect, the Capitol was burned by British troops during the war of 1812, fought by United States against British and Canadians.
    The reconstruction of the building, badly damaged, immediately began later, in 1815, continuing uninterrupted until 1826 with the addition of the central rotunda and dome. Already in August 1815 are engaged in the work of rebuilding the Capitol Giovanni Andrei, Carlo Franzoni, younger brother of Giuseppe, and Francesco Iardella. The latter’s works are, for example, the wonderful Tobacco capitals of the Small Roundabout in the Supreme Court, while the young Carlo is the author of the famous Chariot of history, which still can be seen in Statuary Hall. However, there is not only the presence of the sculptors; in 1817, the painter Pietro Bonanni decorated the dome of the Hall of the House of Representatives, painting it in “chiaroscuro” (light and dark) so as to recall the dome of the Pantheon in Rome.
    The final appearance of the Capitol owes much to famous historical buildings, such as the Basilica di San Pietro in Rome.
    The Capitol was a gym for the art of the United States beginning in 1856, when the Italian-Greek painter Constantino Brumidi was called to fresco the hallways on the first floor of the Senate and House of representatives. The murals, known as the Brumidi Corridors, reflect great moments and people in United States history.Brumidi also worked within the Rotunda. He is responsible for the painting of “The Apotheosis of Washington” (Washington is depicted surrounded by 13 maidens in an inner ring with many Greek and Roman gods and goddesses below him in a second ring) beneath the top of the dome, and also of the famous “Frieze of American History”.
    Within the Rotunda there are eight large paintings about the development of the United States as a nation. On the east side are four paintings depicting major events in the discovery of America (The Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman, The Embarkation of the Pilgrims by Robert Walter Weir, The Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell, and The Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn). On the west are four paintings depicting the founding of the United States.
    The Capitol also houses the National Statuary Hall Collection, comprising two statues donated by each of the fifty states to honor persons notable in their histories.( One of the most notable statue in the National Statuary Hall is a bronze statue of King Kamehameha donated by the state of Hawaii upon its accession to the union in 1959.The statue’s extraordinary weight of 15,000 pounds (6,804 kg) raised concerns that it might come crashing through the floor, so it was moved to Emancipation Hall of the new Capitol Visitor Center).
    Charming decorative choices characterize The House of Representatives Chamber: It is adorned with relief portraits of famous lawmakers and lawgivers throughout history: George Mason; Robert Joseph Pothier ; Jean Baptiste Colbert; Edward I of England; Alfonso X of Castile; Pope Gregory IX; Louis IX of France ; Justinian I ; Tribonian; Lycurgus of Sparta; Hammurabi; Moses; Solon; Aemilius Papinianus; Gaius; Maimonides; Suleiman the Magnificent; Pope Innocent III; Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester; Hugo Grotius; William Blackstone; Thomas Jefferson ; Napoleon.
    Its builders called it a “Temple of Liberty.” Indeed, the U.S. Capitol was intended as a sacred space, a temple for the people, a temple dedicated to the sovereignty of the people (and maybe not only . . . )

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  6. Laura Manna says:

    UNITED STATES CAPITOL
    Even if the history of the United States Capitol Building begins in 1793(President Washington laid the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol in the building’s southeast corner on September 18, 1793)and since then, the U.S. Capitol has been built, burnt, rebuilt, extended and restored. we can say that the heart of this impressive structure was made in the Eighties (indeed the Capitol was greatly expanded in the fifties of the XIX century).
    The Capitol is an example of the neoclassical style. The current building is the result of work of many architects. The original project is due to William Thornton, but was later edited by Stephen Hallet, Benjamin Latrobe and, finally, by Charles Bulfinch. Thomas Walter and August Schoenborn designed the current dome and the buildings that house the House of Representatives and the Senate, whose construction was supervised by Edward Clark.
    The building is characterized by the huge central dome that rises on a roundabout connecting two wings which house the two branches of Congress. The North Wing is occupied by the Senate, the South Wing by the House of representatives. The dome is surmounted by a bronze statue of liberty.
    The building contains in itself the signs of contribution given by Italian artists : on 6 March of 1805 Thomas Jefferson addressed the toscano Filippo Mazzei a letter required skilled stonemasons and sculptors available to travel to America to work at the Capitol in Washington. The first to arrive overseas were Giuseppe Franzoni and Giovanni Andrei (the first described as a talented sculptor who “will soon be a second Canova”, the second known to have executed the balustrade of the main altar in the basilica of Santa Maria Novella in Florence) . Will be many sculptural works made by Franzoni to the Capitol, including the frieze of the Hall of Representatives, the figure of liberty for the Chamber of Representatives, the frieze above the Speakers ‘ Chair and the figure of Justice to the Court Room. Works that will be almost entirely destroyed on 24 August 1814 when the United States Capitol was conquered and burned by British troops. Shortly after the completion of two wings in August 1814, in effect, the Capitol was burned by British troops during the war of 1812, fought by United States against British and Canadians.
    The reconstruction of the building, badly damaged, immediately began later, in 1815, continuing uninterrupted until 1826 with the addition of the central rotunda and dome. Already in August 1815 are engaged in the work of rebuilding the Capitol Giovanni Andrei, Carlo Franzoni, younger brother of Giuseppe, and Francesco Iardella. The latter’s works are, for example, the wonderful Tobacco capitals of the Small Roundabout in the Supreme Court, while the young Carlo is the author of the famous Chariot of history, which still can be seen in Statuary Hall. However, there is not only the presence of the sculptors; in 1817, the painter Pietro Bonanni decorated the dome of the Hall of the House of Representatives, painting it in “chiaroscuro” (light and dark) so as to recall the dome of the Pantheon in Rome.
    The final appearance of the Capitol owes much to famous historical buildings, such as the Basilica di San Pietro in Rome..
    The Capitol was a gym for the art of the United States beginning in 1856, when the Italian-Greek painter Constantino Brumidi was called to fresco the hallways on the first floor of the Senate and House of representatives. The murals, known as the Brumidi Corridors, reflect great moments and people in United States history.Brumidi also worked within the Rotunda. He is responsible for the painting of “The Apotheosis of Washington” (Washington is depicted surrounded by 13 maidens in an inner ring with many Greek and Roman gods and goddesses below him in a second ring) beneath the top of the dome, and also of the famous “Frieze of American History”.
    Within the Rotunda there are eight large paintings about the development of the United States as a nation. On the east side are four paintings depicting major events in the discovery of America (The Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman, The Embarkation of the Pilgrims by Robert Walter Weir, The Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell, and The Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn). On the west are four paintings depicting the founding of the United States.
    The Capitol also houses the National Statuary Hall Collection, comprising two statues donated by each of the fifty states to honor persons notable in their histories.( One of the most notable statue in the National Statuary Hall is a bronze statue of King Kamehameha donated by the state of Hawaii upon its accession to the union in 1959.The statue’s extraordinary weight of 15,000 pounds (6,804 kg) raised concerns that it might come crashing through the floor, so it was moved to Emancipation Hall of the new Capitol Visitor Center).
    Charming decorative choices characterize The House of Representatives Chamber: It is adorned with relief portraits of famous lawmakers and lawgivers throughout history: George Mason; Robert Joseph Pothier ; Jean Baptiste Colbert; Edward I of England; Alfonso X of Castile; Pope Gregory IX; Louis IX of France ; Justinian I ; Tribonian; Lycurgus of Sparta; Hammurabi; Moses; Solon; Aemilius Papinianus; Gaius; Maimonides; Suleiman the Magnificent; Pope Innocent III; Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester; Hugo Grotius; William Blackstone; Thomas Jefferson ; Napoleon.
    Its builders called it a “Temple of Liberty”. Indeed the U.S. Capitol was intended as a sacred place, a temple for the people, a temple dedicated to the soveraignity of the people ( and maybe not only . . . )

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  7. Laura Manna says:

    UNITED STATES CAPITOL
    Even if the history of the United States Capitol Building begins in 1793(President Washington laid the cornerstone of the U.S. Capitol in the building’s southeast corner on September 18, 1793)and since then, the U.S. Capitol has been built, burnt, rebuilt, extended and restored. we can say that the heart of this impressive structure was made in the Eighties (sure enough the Capitol was greatly expanded in the fifties of the XIX century).
    The Capitol is an example of the neoclassical style. The current building is the result of work of many architects. The original project is due to William Thornton, but was later edited by Stephen Hallet, Benjamin Latrobe and, finally, by Charles Bulfinch. Thomas Walter and August Schoenborn designed the current dome and the buildings that house the House of Representatives and the Senate, whose construction was supervised by Edward Clark.
    The building is characterized by the huge central dome that rises on a roundabout connecting two wings which house the two branches of Congress. The North Wing is occupied by the Senate, the South Wing by the House of representatives. The dome is surmounted by a bronze statue of liberty.
    The building contains in itself the signs of contribution given by Italian artists : on 6 March of 1805 Thomas Jefferson addressed the toscano Filippo Mazzei a letter required skilled stonemasons and sculptors available to travel to America to work at the Capitol in Washington. The first to arrive overseas were Giuseppe Franzoni and Giovanni Andrei (the first described as a talented sculptor who “will soon be a second Canova”, the second known to have executed the balustrade of the main altar in the basilica of Santa Maria Novella in Florence) . Will be many sculptural works made by Franzoni to the Capitol, including the frieze of the Hall of Representatives, the figure of liberty for the Chamber of Representatives, the frieze above the Speakers ‘ Chair and the figure of Justice to the Court Room. Works that will be almost entirely destroyed on 24 August 1814 when the United States Capitol was conquered and burned by British troops. Shortly after the completion of two wings in August 1814, in effect, the Capitol was burned by British troops during the war of 1812, fought by United States against British and Canadians. The reconstruction of the building, badly damaged, immediately began later, in 1815, continuing uninterrupted until 1826 with the addition of the central rotunda and dome. Already in August 1815 are engaged in the work of rebuilding the Capitol Giovanni Andrei, Carlo Franzoni, younger brother of Giuseppe, and Francesco Iardella. The latter’s works are, for example, the wonderful Tobacco capitals of the Small Roundabout in the Supreme Court, while the young Carlo is the author of the famous Chariot of history, which still can be seen in Statuary Hall. However, there is not only the presence of the sculptors; in 1817, the painter Pietro Bonanni decorated the dome of the Hall of the House of Representatives, painting it in “chiaroscuro” (light and dark) so as to recall the dome of the Pantheon in Rome.
    The final appearance of the Capitol owes much to famous historical buildings, such as the Basilica di San Pietro in Rome..
    The Capitol was a gym for the art of the United States beginning in 1856, when the Italian-Greek painter Constantino Brumidi was called to fresco the hallways on the first floor of the Senate and House of representatives. The murals, known as the Brumidi Corridors, reflect great moments and people in United States history.Brumidi also worked within the Rotunda. He is responsible for the painting of “The Apotheosis of Washington” (Washington is depicted surrounded by 13 maidens in an inner ring with many Greek and Roman gods and goddesses below him in a second ring) beneath the top of the dome, and also of the famous “Frieze of American History”.
    Within the Rotunda there are eight large paintings about the development of the United States as a nation. On the east side are four paintings depicting major events in the discovery of America (The Baptism of Pocahontas by John Gadsby Chapman, The Embarkation of the Pilgrims by Robert Walter Weir, The Discovery of the Mississippi by William Henry Powell, and The Landing of Columbus by John Vanderlyn). On the west are four paintings depicting the founding of the United States.
    The Capitol also houses the National Statuary Hall Collection, comprising two statues donated by each of the fifty states to honor persons notable in their histories.( One of the most notable statue in the National Statuary Hall is a bronze statue of King Kamehameha donated by the state of Hawaii upon its accession to the union in 1959.The statue’s extraordinary weight of 15,000 pounds (6,804 kg) raised concerns that it might come crashing through the floor, so it was moved to Emancipation Hall of the new Capitol Visitor Center).
    Charming decorative choices characterize The House of Representatives Chamber: It is adorned with relief portraits of famous lawmakers and lawgivers throughout history: George Mason; Robert Joseph Pothier ; Jean Baptiste Colbert; Edward I of England; Alfonso X of Castile; Pope Gregory IX; Louis IX of France ; Justinian I ; Tribonian; Lycurgus of Sparta; Hammurabi; Moses; Solon; Aemilius Papinianus; Gaius; Maimonides; Suleiman the Magnificent; Pope Innocent III; Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester; Hugo Grotius; William Blackstone; Thomas Jefferson ; Napoleon..
    Its builders called it a “Temple of Liberty.” Indeed, the U.S. Capitol was intended as a sacred space, a temple for the people. a temple dedicated to the sovereignty of the people (and maybe not only . . . )

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  8. VITTORIA says:

    The Monument to Garibaldi in Sanremo was built between the 19th and the 20th centuries by a famous protagonist of the European culture who was Leonardo Bistolfi.
    He was one of the first authors, in Italy, of a new way to sculpt in tune with the latest cultural and literary movements of International symbolism.
    Since 1882, the year of the Garibaldi’s death, Sanremo decided to honor the figure of the hero with a monument, in view of the strong links between the leader and the city (he had accepted citizenship “with gratitude”, when Nice was passed to France. Here was born the captain Angelo Pesante, an important figure in his adolescence).
    Commissioned by the Municipality of Sanremo, only in 1905, after the possible involvement of other artists, including some prestigious names such as Ettore Ximenes and Odoardo Tabacchi had failed, it was the first public monument of national importance commissioned to Leonardo Bistolfi and an opportunity to return to a theme already addressed at a young age. In this regard it is worth mentioning that, in the Milan of the 1887-88 competition, his sketch, while not winning, was so popular that a group of artists, led by Camillo Boito, had decided to finance the bronze casting and to make a gift to that municipality.
    In the work of Sanremo simple symmetrical massing of the base upon which the elegant inscriptions in gold exalt the hero bronze figure, center, and standing, calm in a thoughtful attitude, the glaze to the sea, as to reach Caprera or Roma, half of his entire existence: a “vision transfigured and legendary” hero. Six beautiful bronze bas-reliefs that decorate the base, animated by young and sensuous female figures and “neomichelangioleschi” male nudes and heroic, with a strong plasticity, despite the very low relief. For the inauguration of the monument, in 1908, illustrious names were involved: the poets Giovanni Pascoli (since 1907, the year of the Carducci’s death, had taken to the role of poet, devoting all his efforts to the construction of the myth of Garibaldi) and Angiolo Silvio Novaro, and some of the most significant artists of the Art Nouveau-modernist season: the painters Plinio Nomellini (author of the beautiful poster) and Galileo Chini and the sculptor Edoardo De Albertis.
    The monument luckily survived the last war: in 1941 its bronze parts were indeed removed with the aim of merging them “to give weapons to the homeland”; the operation was later suspended, perhaps to Mussolini’s order, in view of its excellence.

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  9. Roberta Venturi says:

    THE MONUMENT TO CESARE BECCARIA (Milan)
    The bronze statue to Cesare Beccaria, that sits on an hight granite plinth, is a copy made in 1919 to replace the original one, damneged marble sculpture by Giuseppe Grandi and innaugurated in 1871.
    That is a Civil monument built to celebrate the abolishment of capital punishment: as you can see from the plaque that contains the phrase “Dei delitti e delle pene “, and also from bronze reliefs that rappresent the Civilization and Justice.
    In 1865, for the centenary of pubblication of “Trattato dei delitti e delle pene” by Cesare Beccaria, the parliament approved the abolition of the capital punishment for non-political crimes. Shortly after it was formed a committee to promote the realizazion of a monument to Cesare Beccaria. In 1868 Giuseppe Grandi won the announcement of competition. The idea was about a monument that celebrates an ideal value, so it was decided to collocate the monument on the spot formerly occupied by hangman ‘s house, and near the ancient palace of “Capitano Di Giustizia” that after became the seat of civil court, in Piazza Beccaria.

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  10. Veronica Fortino says:

    ADAM MICKIEWICZ MONUMENT

    A men who spent his life for the homeland, who strove for a free nation without foreign persecutions; a men who has projected the shadows of his actions over his nation, everywhere he was. Can all this be named justice? Although we are not taking into account a politician or a jurist, when I was wondering what could be my answer to this question on law, my mind went to this poet who had a great passion for his ideal of justice and he tried to put it in practice through his masterpieces as well as fighting.

    At first, before telling about the monument, I would like to explain the reason why this figure has been so important for Poland and how he tried to give voice to his will of freedom. In 1820 Mickiewicz founded a young secret club called “Filareti” with patriotic aims and he was jailed and exiled in San Petersburg; some years later, he moved to Rome, where he increase his relations with Mazzini, who said that M. was “the most poetic nature of the century” and, during that period, he knew that a polish revolution was taking place. Immediately he decided to leave to take part in the protest but unfortunately he arrived too late. Then he moved to Paris, centre of polish emigration, and participated to exiled circles and in 1832 he wrote books about Poland and polish pilgrims. In 1848, in Italy, he founded a polish legion to participate to the battle in the Italian army.

    For the hundredth anniversary of his death, in 1898, two statues have been built, one in Krakow and the other in Warsaw. The one in Krakow is based in the centre of the Main Market Square; in 1882 a committee was set up to conduct a public competition for its design; after three competition were hold, finally the young artist Teodor Rygier was appointed to design the monument; actually, even if he was not so famous like others artist who joined the competitions, he was awarded by popular demand. The unveiling of the statue took a long time because of the many requests for revision coming from the artistic committee; we have to keep in mind that the nation was under Russian control. The statue is made of bronze and at the poet’s feet there are four allegoric figures which represent four muses: the Motherland, Science, Courage and Poetry; on the monument there is also an inscription “To Adam Mickiewicz, the Nation”. The second monument, based in Warsaw, has been built in the same years, but the idea of its construction came from a journal “The Glos” and , just with the Russian authorities’ permission, it was created a public committee, asking people for financial contributions. The two statues have two elements in common: both were made of materials coming from Italy; both were destroyed because of the German invasion of Poland and nowadays there are two copies thanks to the restoration’s works.

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  11. Jéssica Costa says:

    THE STATUE OF LIBERTY

    One of the most recognized symbols of the United States and the Western civilization is, without a doubt, the Statue of Liberty, first called “The Statue of Liberty Enlightening the World”. Given by France to the United States to celebrate the relationship between the two countries, the Statue has become an icon of the US, but also a worldwide recognized symbol of freedom and democracy.
    Its construction was first suggested by the French political thinker, U.S. Constitution expert, and abolitionist Edouard de Laboulaye and was a combined effort between France and the United States. French artist and sculptor Frederic-Auguste Bartholdi was responsible for the design and other French and American figures were ahead of the the statue’s engineering and funding.
    When Laboulaye’s Statue of “Liberty Enlightening the World” was completed, in 1886, it not only represented democracy but also symbolized American independence and the end of slavery and opression, a clear representation of abolicionism. A broken shackle and chain lie at the Statue’s right foot. The chain disappears beneath the draperies, only to reappear in front of her left foot, its end link broken. Interisting though is the fact that this powerful image of liberty did not represent the reality of African Americans right after abolition.
    At the statue’s feet, there’s a bronze plaque with the poem “The New Colossus” written at it, which says:

    “Give me your tired, your poor,
    Your Huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
    The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
    Send these, the homeless, tempest-tost to me,
    I lift my lamp beside the golden door!”

    The statue is located in Liberty Island and was declared by the United Nations a World Heritage Site, in 1984. Besides its abolitionist meaning, the statue, throughout the years, also represented the military campaign during wars, the promise of a new life for immigrants and it’s also a big symbol of popular and commercial culture.

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  12. Giorgia Castelli says:

    PALACE OF JUSTICE IN TRENTO

    Palace of justice in Trento was designed with the prison complex by the Austrian Architect Karl Schaden in 1876,during the Austro-Hungarian domination. The Architect designed the construction in Neo-Gothic and neoclassical style.
    It is situated in the city centre, exactly in Largo Pigarelli.
    It was inaugurated by Emperor Franz Josef in 1881, and in the same year there was another inauguration: Palace of justice in Wien.
    Nowadays it holds the law court, the Appeals court, the Procura della Republica and most of the judicial offices.

    Palace of Justice and the Prison complex consist of several parts of the building that seats orthogonally facing each other as to generate a unitary and compact urban layout.
    From the original project, the part of the building realized to set the courts was the central one and it was made up of three levels above ground and a basement. The architect decided to put the entrance in this facade of the building, which was taller than the lateral side of the palace.
    As an extension of the lateral side of the Palace, there were two long buildings that were arrear and protected by a wall. In fact these ones hosted part of the prison cells and the service rooms.

    In the last century Palace of justice was modified from the original one.
    For example the second and third floor of the lateral side of the Palace, projected by the Italian architect Natale Tommasi, were built only in 1922 . Moreover many works were made inside the buildings.
    In 2001 the commission of cultural property declared the historical and artistic interest of Palace of justice,excluding the prison complex.

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  13. Alessandra D'Urso says:

    The history of the Statue of liberty (or “Liberty Enlightening the World”) began in 1865 when the French sculptor Bartholdi and his friend Edouard de Laboulaye had the idea to ​​give to the United States a statue celebrating the friendship between the two nations and commemorating the conquest of their indipendence. After many difficulties in 1886 the statue was inaugurated. Standing at the harbor entrance, on the rocky Liberty Island, with its 93 meters of hight, it is one of the biggest and most popular monuments in the world. It depicts a woman wearing a long robe and holding up proudly in his right hand a torch, symbol of the eternal fire of liberty, while in the other hand it has a book with the date of the day of the American Independence: July 4, 1776. On its head it has a crown whose seven points represent the seven seas or seven continents. At its feet there are broken chains, symbol of liberation from despotic sovereign power. The right foot is raised, depicting the movement forward, away from oppression and slavery.

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  14. FRANCESCA MAZZINI says:

    LADY JUSTICE IN CZECH REPUBLIC

    Lady Justice, or also Iustitia, is one of the most used symbol to express the idea of justice.
    A lot of artists usually represent it with a blindfold on the eyes, refering to impartiality of the law and reinforcing courts’ devotion to the objective truth.
    The genealogy of Iustitia dates back to Greek mythology: Themis, Dike and Nemesis, as divine allegories of law and order.
    With the rise of the Church Iustitia was not considered a goddess anymore but a personification of ancient virtue.
    In modern times Iustitia has adorned courtrooms and the public forum as a trope to the Court of Law, and she is often associated with jurisprudence.
    Lady Justice statue in Olomouc (Czech republic) was made by the sculptor J.L. Urban during 19th century, and it is situated in front of the Palace of Justice.
    This representation of Iustitia lacks the typical blindfold and scales, replacing the latter with a book. The Goddess is sitting, she holds a sword in the right hand, an allegory of justice’s power, and in the letf hand she has a book that reminds to the importance of knowledge.

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  15. Rachele Ramellini says:

    THE STATUE OF GIORDANO BRUNO

    The statue is placed in the centre of campo de’ fiori square, in Rome, where Giordano Bruno was burned in 1600. During the last decade of 19th century a group of influential personalities (to which was also part Victor Hugo) proposed to erect a monument dedicated to Giordano Bruno in the point of square where he was burned. The proposition originated a heated debate between catholics and liberas.
    The catholic church opposed to, and there were also clashes between students and police.
    At least was the city councilman Francesco Crispi, who was also a convinced anti-clerical man, that authorized the construction of the statue.
    The statue was realized by Ettore Ferrari, an italian sculptour who was a freemason. Indeed, according to some people, the statue and Giordano Bruno himself are symbols for freemasonry.
    The first project of the statue was declined in 1879, because it was judged too controversial to the catholic church. At least it was inaugurated in June, 9, 1889.
    Duringh the fascist period some radical catholics answered to duce Benito Mussolini the removal of the statue, but he refused to avoid any other possible desorder.
    The statue became a symbol of freedom, anti-clericalism and liberalism of state and justice.
    The look of Giordano Brun0o is ponted to Vatican city as an admonishment. At the base there are pictures of free thinkers and important events of Giordano Bruno’s life.

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  16. Matthew Banks says:

    Perhaps one of the most iconic buildings in England is the Houses of Parliament. It is the seat of English Government and the embodiment of the law making institutions for an entire country, namely the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
    The original building was destroyed in 1512, the second construction was destroyed and the only remaining piece of the building is Westminster hall. The Building that is seen today was built in the middle of the 19th century, in the revived Gothic style.
    Charles Barry, designed the building following the English Perpendicular Gothic style of the 14th-16th centuries, to capture an important style of architecture, prominent in England and closely associated with places of power.
    The design within is even more important, with the two houses being distinctly separate and the seat of the Crown, found in the House of Lords, being lower than that of the speaker in the House of commons. This is deliberate to show that the crown has less power than that of the Speaker when they are in the commons.
    The Design of both houses are also known to be in an adversarial style, seating both parties opposite to one another at sword’s distance from one another. This represents the apposing parties battle to influence the running of the country especially in the creation of new acts of parliament.

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  17. Giulia Loi says:

    After our visit to the Court of Cassation, I was trying to find a monument that could resume, as is perfectly combined in the Cavour’s statue, the idea of Justice and patriotic values.
    It was not that easy, but then I realized where I could find this strong relationship: The monument of Dante Alighieri in Trento.
    It is a set of sculptures of Cesare Zocchi, realized in the 1896.
    It was created as a symbol of italian language and in general, of the italian spirit and this is because at that time, Trentino was under the Austro-Hungaric Empire’s control. When Italy entered in the war, the monument takes on the meaning of “irredentism” (that is a political or popular movement intended to reclaim and reoccupy a lost homeland).
    Dante wanted to reunite to the motherland all the territories linked to it, for language or culture, but politically subject to an alien State. Dante, for sure, gave a very strong contribution to the italian culture. He was not just a famous and ingenious writer; at that time the role of an intellectual was so much active even in the political world. The ink, the mind, the ideas were somehow strong weapons and tools for the most elegant and enlightened revolution.
    In this monument the idea of Justice is linked to the reunion of what naturally, politically, ideologically, culturally, has to stay together.
    But the figure of Dante, on the top, is not isolated to his natural extension: the Divine Comedy.
    In fact, we can find three levels: at the bottom we find the Hell, with Minosse, judge of the damned, which underlies the concept of Justice; in the second level we find Purgatory, with Sordello, that is the symbol of “Amor di Patria” and in the last level, the Paradise with Beatrice.
    It is not casual the position in the bottom of Minosse: Justice is, in fact, the “fundamentum regnorum”.
    In the amazing trip of the Divine Comedy, Dante has always put justice as the most important value among human values. And every man, even Dante himself, to get to heaven must pass under the inflexible justice through the atonement. Divine justice in Dante is permeated by pure retributive and restorative justice (Legge del Contrappasso).

    It is therefore a very interesting conjunction of justice in the political and divine sense that combine in a hymn to Man and to Italy.

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  18. Simona Milardo says:

    The statue of Giuseppe Garibaldi in Bologna.
    I went in Bologna with my friends two weeks ago and I saw this amazing equestrian statue of Giuseppe Garibaldi, near the train station and in front of the Arena del Sole.
    It was built by Arnaldo Zocchi and it was inaugurated on the 8th of July, 1900. Many workers representatives attended the event. The official speech was made by the professor Diorscoride Vitale, an ex garibaldian.
    The statue is located on the place of the Ugo Bassi one – moved in front of the barrack of San Gervasio. The collocation of the monument inspired Alfredo Testoni to write a funny comedy whose title is ‘In dovv’ s’ mett Garibaldi’, successfully represented at the theatre Contavalli on the 17th of March. In this piece the other bourgeois statues of Bologna discuss about the fate of Garibaldi.

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  19. Franziska Hertzberg says:

    The Reichstag in Berlin.

    Built between 1884 and 1894, this impressing building was constructed by Paul Wallot representing the era of the Neorenaissance. For over 100 years this building accommodated the various regimes and governments until to this day. Starting with being the Reichstag of the German Empire, followed by the Weimar Republic, it was set on fire in 1933, where it got severely destroyed and was then used for the Nazi regime. During the second world war it was used as an air raid bunker and even temporarily as an hospital of the famous Charité in Berlin only until it was then occupied by the red army. After the second World War, being severly damaged, it was renovated by Paul Baumgarten starting in 1961 until 1973. The new “style” was more moderate, less decorative and more practical. This was also due to the reason of the forgoing history of a weak democracy, a brutal dictatorship and now a new young democracy again. It seemed appropriate to set a clear sign of “difference” to the past and also “to play low” again after what happened. During the separation of Germany it remained empty and became a symbol of the defeated Germany between the two different political powers or groups that established during the cold war. When Germany got reunited the first meeting of the German Bundestag was held on October 4th in 1990 only one day after the reunification. I think this building shows a lot of ambiguity and a lot of controversial history. It underwent a variety of political notions and hence at the same time representing the different judicial systems at that times.

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  20. Marine Saada says:

    The PALAIS BOURBON in Paris

    The Palais Bourbon is not a XIX century building since it was originally built between 1722 and 1728, but it was renovated and became the seat of the French Assemblée Nationale during the first French Empire. The National Assembly is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France, ironically, the name of this republican symbol, actually refers to the Royal Bourbon family, who were forced out by the republicans during the French Revolution.

    In fact, the Palais Bourbon was built for the Duchess of Bourbon, daughter of King Louis XIV and Madame de Montespan, but was confiscated during the French Revolution and declared national property. After the French revolution, in 1798, the building acquired legal and political functions, since it was used by the Council of the Five Hundreds (at the time the larger chamber of the French Legislature). For this event, the hemicycle had been specially built in what was still merely an aristocratic palace, profoundly affecting the harmony of the building.

    It was not until the Empire that it started to look harmonious again and slowly acquired the appearance of an official building. In fact, when the Consulate and then the Empire succeeded the Directory, the Palais Bourbon had been profoundly transformed but to the detriment of its overall coherence. In order to better integrate the building to correct the inharmonious impression given by the facade, the legislative power under the authority of Napoleon Bonaparte, commissioned the architect Bernard Poyet to entirely rethink the external appearance of Palais Bourbon on the Seine side. In fact, he modified between 1806 and 1810 the northern facade, by constructing twelve columns under triangular front pediment in an antique Greek style temple dedicated to the Laws, the whole intended to mirror the building of the Madeleine, which sits on the opposite side of the River Seine. Finally, four statues at the foot of the staircase are the ones of four French high officials to symbolize the function of the legislator and the organization of the administration.

    Therefore, the architecture of the Palais Bourbon as we know it today, was directly related to the decision from Napoleon Bonaparte to “officialise” this building and to give him a legal significance, through architectural means, since it was, and is still today, the seat of the French legal power.

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  21. Sevina Metodieva says:

    Palace of Westminster:

    It is a stunning gothic architecture build in the 19th century. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is the home of the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom: House of Commons and the House of Lords. It is placed in London, of course. In 1834, the Old Palace was destroyed by a fire and the only surviving buildings were the Cloisters of St. Stephen’s, the Chapel of St Mary Undercroft, the Jewel Tower and the Westminster Hall. Sir Charles Barry rebuild it in a great neo-gothic architecture. He used a perpendicular gothic style which is characterised by emphasis on vertical lines. The oldest part of the Palace is the Westminster Hall, build up it 1097; it is also the largest hall in Europe. The Hall was housing the Court of King’s Bench, the Court of Common Pleas and the Court of Chancery.

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  22. Serena Di Domenica says:

    THE MONUMENT OF THE BATTLE OF THE NATIONS.
    The Monument of the Battle of the Nations, or Volkerschlachtdenkmal, is a monument in Leipzig, Germany, dedicated to the 1813 Battle of Leipzig, also known as The Battle of the Nations. It commemorates Napoleon’s defeat at Leipzig in 1813 that was a fundamental step towards the end of hostilities in the War of the Sixth Coalition.
    First proposals to build a monument to commemorate this battle were made in 1814. In this year, the poet Ernst Moritz Arndt proposed to build a “large and magnificent monument”. In 1863, during the 50th anniversary of the battle, a foundation stone was placed, but the monument was not built. In 1894, Clemens Thieme, a member of the Association for History of Leipzig and also a member of the Apollo masonic lodge, raised the funds necessary to build the monument for the 100th anniversary of the battle. The project was commissioned to Bruno Schmitz and the chosen site was the place where Napoleon ordered the retreat of his army.
    This structure is 91 metres tall and it is made of granite. It is adorned with statues representing the four legendary historic qualities ascribed to the German people: bravery, faith, sacrifice, and fertility.

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  23. Sevina Metodieva says:

    Palace of Westminster:

    It is a stunning gothic architecture build in the 19th century. It is part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site. It is the home of the two houses of the Parliament of the United Kingdom: House of Commons and the House of Lords. It is placed in London, of course. In 1834, the Old Palace was destroyed by a fire and the only surviving buildings were the Cloisters of St. Stephen’s, the Chapel of St Mary Undercroft, the Jewel Tower and the Westminster Hall. Sir Charles Barry rebuild it in a great neo-gothic architecture. He used a perpendicular gothic style which is characterised by emphasis on vertical lines. The oldest part of the Palace is the Westminster Hall, build up it 1097; it is also the largest hall in Europe. The Hall was housing the Court of King’s Bench, the Court of Common Pleas and the Court of Chancery.

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  24. Alessandro C. says:

    I will write a few lines about the Palais de Justice.

    It is placed in Brussels and it is the biggest court of law in the entire world. Its architecture design is eclectic and neoclassical.

    The first one is a combination of different styles, indeed the neo-classical architecture design refers to the simplicity of geometric forms and Greek and Roman details.

    The building of the “Palais de Justice” was announced by Leopold I and the construction lasted for 17 years.

    In spite of his architectural and historic distinction, in recent years the building has been underestimated. Its iron structure did not protect in such a good way from the infiltration of water, as a result the iron has become rusty, breaking the stone masonry.

    Besides that, many halls and areas in the Palace are unused.

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